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Circo de Dos Hermanas

Located in the Central Mountain Range oriental side, the surface of The Park encompasses 33.960 hectares along the heights of the Sierra de Guadarrama, of which nearly 64% belongs to the Madrid Autonomous Community, and the remaining almost 36% belongs to Segovia, in the Castilla and León Autonomous Community. The Peñalara Peak (Pico de Peñalara) with 2.428 m above the sea level is the highest peak, and together with other four surrounding summits above 2.271 m, they shape the ridge of the scenic Peñalara Massif (Macizo de Peñalara), spreading out from Los Cotos Pass (Puerto de Los Cotos) to the Nevero Path Col (Collado del Camino del Nevero), in the North- Northeast direction.

From this point, the National Park widens in the northeast direction, following the Sierra de Guadarrama central axis, passing through the Navafría Pass (Puerto de Navafría), up to the Reajo Alto peak (2.100 m). There is another impressive mountains ridge, Cuerda Larga, starting at the Navacerrada Pass (Puerto de Navacerrada), with an extension of 16 km and holding always an altitude above 2.000 m, with the maximum height Cabezas de Hierro of 2.383 m. La Morcuera Pass (Puerto de la Morcuera) indicates the end of the Cuerda Larga ridge and flags the Sierra de la Morcuera starting point. This chain with less altitude than the precedent spreads out further the National Park limits. Other “sierras” and summits of interest are Siete Picos, spreading out between the Navacerrada Pass and La Fuenfría Pass, Sierra de los Porrones, La Pedriza, Peña del Oso (2.196 m) and Montón de Trigo (2.195 m).

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General description of the Park

Hueco de San Blas

The National Park encompasses 33.960 hectares of the Sierra de Guadarrama in the Central Mountain Range, chain that halves the Castilian meseta and separates the Duero and the Tajo river basins and Madrid and Segovia provinces. The majority of its surface is covered by heights where rocky outcrops, mountain pastures and shrubs dominate.

During the Park pronouncement process, it was named at a certain time “Sierra de Guadarrama Heights National Park”, but the inclusion of large pinewood surfaces, and other not so large of Pyrenean oak covering the Supramediterranean and Oromediterranean bioclimatic areas, leaded to the “Heights” denomination removal.


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Technical Sheet


Sierra de Guadarrama National Park


Law 7/2013, June 25th, Sierra de Guadarrama National Park (BOE 26/6/2013)

Planning and Managing tools:

Sierra de Guadarrama Natural Resources Ordering Plan (Plan de Ordenación de los Recursos Naturales de la Sierra de Guadarrama) from the Madrid Autonomous Community: Legislative Decree 96/2009, November 18th (BOCM 14/1/2010).

“Sierra de Guadarrama” Natural Space Natural Resources Ordering Plan (Plan de Ordenación de los Recursos Naturales del Espacio Natural “Sierra de Guadarrama”), Segovia and Ávila: Legislative Decree 4/2010, January 14th (BOCYL 20/1/2010).

In the mean time the National Park Usage and Management Master Plan (Plan Rector de Uso y Gestión del Parque Nacional) is approved, all the management tools related to the geographies scope protected natural areas will remain valid, for any concern in line with the Law 7/2013, June 25th, Sierra de Guadarrama National Park pronouncement.

The Matas Mounts (Montes Matas) and the Valsaín Pinewood (Pinar de Valsaín) are subject to a special regulation.


33.960 hectares have been declared as National Park:

- Madrid Autonomous Community: 21.714 hectares

- Castilla and León Parliament (Segovia): 12.246 hectares

- National Park Special Protection Area (Matas Mounts and Valsaín Pinewood): 7.011 hectares.

Other 62.687 hectares pronounced as Peripheral Protection Zone.


-National Park

-Peripheral Protection Zone

-Socioeconomic Influence Area

Other Environmental Status:

- Cuenca Alta del Manzanares Regional Park (Peripheral Protection Zone).

- Sierra Norte de Guadarrama Natural Park.

- La Cuenca Alta del Manzanares declared as Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO.

- SCI/SACs: ES3110002 Cuenca del Río Lozoya and Sierra Norte, ES3110004 Cuenca del Río Manzanares and ES3110005 Cuenca del Río Guadarrama (partially included).

- SPA ES0000057 Alto Lozoya.

- SPA ES0000010 Sierra de Guadarrama (partially included).

- SCI ES4160109 Sierra de Guadarrama (partially included).

- Real Sitio de San Ildefonso-El Espinar Biosphere Reserve declared by UNESCO.

- Peñalara Massif wetlands included in the International wetlands listing of the Ramsar Convention.

- Peñalara Massif wetlands included in the Catálogo de Embalses y Humedales (Reservoir and Wetlands Catalogue).

- Pinilla reservoir included in the Catálogo de Embalses y Humedales (Reservoir and Wetlands Catalogue).

- Fluvial Natural Reserve Manzanares river

- Fluvial Natural Reserve Alto Eresma


The Sierra de Guadarrama located in the Central Mountain Range halves naturally the north and the south mesetas shaping the centre of the Iberian Peninsula.

It accounts for a representative sample of the high-mountain Mediterranean natural systems, such as shrubs and Alpine pastures, pinewoods, Pyrenean oak woods, peat lands with glacial and periglacial landforms, and mountains landscapes with geological extraordinary elements.

Main ecosystems:

- Pinus sylvestris pinewoods on siliceous soils.

- High-mountain wetlands and lakes.

- High-mountain and mountain formations: granitic rock geomorphology emphasizing unique landscapes and forms.

- Gall and Pyrenean oak woods.

- Supra-forest level shrubs, high-mountain pastures, woody steppes in altitude and pebbles grounds.

- Pinewoods, juniper and Spanish juniper fields.

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