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Exceptional trees

Tejo del BarondilloIn the National Park and its Influence Zone, there are 43 trees catalogued as exceptional, according to the Castilla León and Madrid Autonomous Communities environmental regulations. Among them 10 are located inner the National Park.

In presence of one of those giants, we certainly cannot remain indifferent. Impressive stemflows, thick trunks and enormous twisted branches will invite us to contemplate and respect those nature jewels.

Cataloguing arboreal specimens as exceptional mainly follows monumental, historic, cultural and scientist criteria. Generally, it relates to trees with exceptional characteristics which have survived over the years, due to several reasons, lasting as live legends strongly linked to people and their environment.

Rebollo de gran porteIn many occasions they are located in urban areas or close, in the Monasteries and palaces surroundings etc. In other cases, they are located in full nature, integrated in our forests or solitary in particular enclaves. Among those last ones, there are outstanding specimens of some autochthon species (Pyrenean oak, holly tree, Scots pine, birch, yew etc.) relics and witnesses of former times when forests were different than nowadays, due to climatic aspects and mountain logging and charcoaling usages.

In addition, there is a group of exotic species trees (Douglas firs, spruces, Caucasus firs, Lawson cypresses and larches) presenting majestic appearances and coming from old tree nurseries which stopped their activity at the early 20th century.

It is also important to highlight the existence at the National Park of some trees with extraordinary dimensions, with possibilities to become catalogued and deserving both the specimen and its environment the maximum protection.

Within the National Park exceptional trees, we should emphasize the Barondillo Stream yew, a tree with a spectacular demeanour, and 1.500 years of estimated age.


Tree name Specie Location Zone*
Birch of El Toril I Stream Betula alba Canencia ZPP
Birch of El Toril II Stream Betula alba Canencia ZPP
Holly tree of Canencia Pass Ilex aquifolium Canencia ZPP
Larch of the Mojonavalle tree nursery Larix decidua Canencia ZPP
Yew of La Senda Taxus baccata Canencia ZPP
Yew of Sestil de Maíllo Taxus baccata Canencia ZPP
Scots pine of La Cadena Pinus sylvestris Cercedilla ZPP
Sequoya of Las Campanillas Sequoiadendron giganteum El Espinar ZPP
Caucasus fir of Peña Alta Abies nordmandiana Lozoya PNSG
Lawson cypress of La Cebedilla Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Lozoya ZPP
Lawson cypress of the bridge bends Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Lozoya ZPP
Walnut of Lozoya Juglans regia Lozoya APU
Juniper of Los Canalizos Juniperus oxycedrus Lozoya ZPP
Spanish juniper of Los Canalizos Juniperus thurifera Lozoya ZPP
Spruce of La Cebedilla I Picea abies Lozoya ZPP
Spruce of La Cebedilla II Picea abies Lozoya ZPP
Lord Weymouth pine of La Cebedilla Pinus strobus Lozoya ZPP
Douglas fir of La Cebedilla I Pseudotsuga menziesii Lozoya ZPP
Douglas fir of La Cebedilla II Pseudotsuga menziesii Lozoya ZPP
Douglas fir of La Cebedilla III Pseudotsuga menziesii Lozoya ZPP
Pyrenean oak of La Gallina Quercus pyrenaica Lozoya ZPP
Pyrenean oak of La Maleza Quercus pyrenaica Lozoya ZPP
Holly tree of Las Cerradillas Ilex aquifolium Manzanares El Real PNSG
Holly tree of the Manzanares River Ilex aquifolium Manzanares El Real PNSG
Scots pine of The French Sierra Pinus sylvestris Manzanares El Real PN
Cork oak of Las Casiruelas Quercus suber Manzanares El Real ZPP
Cork oak of El Ortigal or Cork oak of El Bandolero Quercus suber Manzanares El Real PNSG
Yew of Los Hoyos Stream Taxus baccata Manzanares El Real PNSG
Yew of El Civato Stream Taxus baccata Manzanares El Real PNSG
Yew of Las Hoces Stream Taxus baccata Manzanares El Real PNSG
Poplar of El Ayuntamiento Populus x canadensis Pinilla del Valle APU
Spanish juniper of El Chorrillo Juniperus thurifera Rascafría ZPP
Pine of Hoyo de los Claveles Pinus sylvestris Rascafría PNSG
Poplar of Oteruelo del Valle Populus x canadensis Rascafría ZPP
Cherry tree of El Soto de los Frailes Prunus padus Rascafría ZPP
Oak tree of El Arroyo de la Redonda Quercus petraea Rascafría PNSG
Pyrenean oak of La Mata del Pañuelo Quercus pyrenaica Rascafría ZPP
Pyrenean oak of El Palancar Quercus pyrenaica Rascafría ZPP
Willow of La Galapaguera I Salix fragilis Rascafría ZAT
Willow of La Galapaguera II Salix fragilis Rascafría ZAT
Whitebeam of El Molino del Cubo Sorbus latifolia Rascafría ZPP
Yew of La Roca Taxus baccata Rascafría ZPP
Yew of Barondillo Stream Taxus baccata Rascafría ZPP

* ZPP: Peripheral protection zone; PNSG: Sierra de Guadarrama National Park; ZAT: Traditional settlement zone (PORN Sierra de Guadarrama); APU: Urbanistic planed areas

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The little-known fauna of the Sierra de Guadarrama.

Vegetation and Natural Systems

Get to know the vegetation of the national park, with 8 natural systems represented.


Around 1680 species and subspecies of plants inhabit the national park.

Geology and Lithology

Rock types and geological history of the Sierra de Guadarrama.


The Sierra de Guadarrama has a high richness of amphibian species.


Information on the reptiles of the Sierra de Guadarrama, some of them very little known.

Sierra de Guadarrama Rivers

Mountain rivers and streams are an essential feature of the national park.

Exceptional trees

Magnificent specimens of different species with exceptional characteristics.


Dozens of mammal species inhabit the Sierra de Guadarrama.

The Sierra de Guadarrama Climate

Description of the climatology of the national park.

Estado del tiempo

×* There is no translation available.* Boletín de las últimas 48h, previsión del peligro de aludes (si está en vigor) y predicción meteorológica.


Dozens of bird species fly the skies of the Sierra, including some of the most emblematic species of the national park.


Fungi play a fundamental role in the ecology of the Sierra de Guadarrama.


The species that inhabit the mountain rivers, some of them unfortunately introduced.

Sistema de observación meteorológica

×* There is no translation available.* El parque nacional cuenta con una red de estaciones meteorológicas de alta montaña.

La Pedriza: a particular granite batholith

La Pedriza is a singular mountain relief, unique in the Iberian Peninsula.

Peñalara Massif wetlands

The Peñalara Massif is the site with the highest concentration of high mountain lakes and ponds in the Sierra de Guadarrama.

Peñalara: glaciology and glacial vestiges

The best glacial remains of Sierra de Guadarrama

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