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Graellsia isabellaeThe invertebrates are the group having a species highest number in the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park. Its high diversity and adaptability to the environment climatic conditions -low temperatures, high snowfall and rainfall, strong winds and high solar radiation - shorten its biological cycle. These extreme variables have led to fundamentally different adaptive strategies in insects, from singular shapes and reduced sizes to the most diverse range of colors, such as the ornamentation of coleopteran elytra or the striking chromatism of butterflies.

In the National Park, spring and summer are time par excellence for a show: a period when insect larvae, after spending winter under the ground, snow and ice, emerge in their adult stages. This metamorphosis process all insects share, causes an explosion of life and triggers a race against time to ensure descent in years to come.

Within this invertebrate fauna, the group having a greatest biodiversity is the one of arthropods, headed by the insect class. However, there are other less abundant but very interesting groups, such as molluscs and crustaceans, mainly ln the National Park wetlands.

Among the molluscs are Pisidium casertanum, characteristic in Peñalara Massif wetlands and National Park water streams. It is a bivalve about 4-5 mm long and under 4 mm width. It proliferates in lentic habitats loamy areas, and it has a cosmopolitan distribution throughout Europe.

Crustaceans, a class of arthropods, are typical of the National Park quiet waters ecosystems. They are usually small invertebrates including, among others, species from Daphnia, Ceriodaphnia, Alona, and Chidorus genera. Perhaps one of the most striking crustaceans is Chirocephalus diaphanus, an anostracean about 37 mm long with a Palearctic distribution. In the National Park, it is distributed in temporary lake systems having oligotrophic waters, and it comes to survive to over 2,100 m heights. Their populations appear in summer, when the snowpack is removed from the mountain wetlands. It is monocyclic, so its eggs need a period of drying prior to hatching.

As mentioned, the largest and most representative group the one from the insects. It is globally estimated that 70% to 80% of living beings are insects. Currently 900,000 insects species are known worldwide. For the Sierra de Guadarrama, the species range estimated number is 15,000 to 20,000 insects, ie, 1.65% of the world total and 35.5% of the insects in the Iberian Peninsula.

More about nature

Exceptional trees

Magnificent specimens of different species with exceptional characteristics.


Dozens of bird species fly the skies of the Sierra, including some of the most emblematic species of the national park.


Around 1680 species and subspecies of plants inhabit the national park.

Vegetation and Natural Systems

Get to know the vegetation of the national park, with 8 natural systems represented.


Fungi play a fundamental role in the ecology of the Sierra de Guadarrama.

La Pedriza: a particular granite batholith

La Pedriza is a singular mountain relief, unique in the Iberian Peninsula.

The Sierra de Guadarrama Climate

Description of the climatology of the national park.


The species that inhabit the mountain rivers, some of them unfortunately introduced.

Peñalara: glaciology and glacial vestiges

The best glacial remains of Sierra de Guadarrama

Peñalara Massif wetlands

The Peñalara Massif is the site with the highest concentration of high mountain lakes and ponds in the Sierra de Guadarrama.

Sierra de Guadarrama Rivers

Mountain rivers and streams are an essential feature of the national park.


The little-known fauna of the Sierra de Guadarrama.

Geology and Lithology

Rock types and geological history of the Sierra de Guadarrama.

Sistema de observación meteorológica

×* There is no translation available.* El parque nacional cuenta con una red de estaciones meteorológicas de alta montaña.


The Sierra de Guadarrama has a high richness of amphibian species.


Dozens of species growing on trees, on rocks, covering the ground.....


Information on the reptiles of the Sierra de Guadarrama, some of them very little known.

Estado del tiempo

×* There is no translation available.* Boletín de las últimas 48h, previsión del peligro de aludes (si está en vigor) y predicción meteorológica.


Dozens of mammal species inhabit the Sierra de Guadarrama.

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