Flora

Posted in Flora and vegetation

Armeria caespitosaThe Sierra de Guadarrama presents a high floristic diversity favored by multiple factors, related mainly with their geographical location. This position has allowed the existence of transitional characteristics between the Mediterranean and the Euro-Siberian regions. In that sense, the Sierra de Guadarrama has acted as a refuge for colder environments which had a wider distribution in the past and have disappeared from the neighboring territories.

In addition, the defendant altitudinal gradient of the Sierra de Guadarrama generates a high variability of climatic factors and soil in a relatively small area of land, which results in the existence of a large number of habitats. Their isolation, as a major mountain range in the heart of the Castilian plateau, has led to significant processes of endemicity.

Although there are no definitive studies that allow us to calculate exactly the number of vascular plants that inhabit in the area of the National Park, approximately there are about 1,680 taxa between species and subspecies.

Most of these taxa corresponds to angiosperms, the dicotyledons (over 75%), monocotyledons (around 20%) have lower representation, and a small number of gymnosperms and Pteridophytes. About more than half of the world's flora is made up of herbaceous perennials, around 30% by annual herbaceous, around 15% by trees and shrubs, and almost 4% by species related to the aquatic environment.

The National Park flora contains, for the most part, representative taxa of flora and vegetation from the Mediterranean high and mid-range mountains ecosystems. Due to the location of these mountains in the central area of the Iberian Peninsula, the territory receives a notable Northern influence, especially in the high areas and valleys toward the north. There is therefore a significant finicola flora component, that is to say, species which have their optimum distribution on the European continent and reach the Central System, having their southern limit of distribution in these mountains or in other Iberian mountain ranges. Examples of these species are Epilobium angustifolium, Eryngium bourgatii, Fraxinus excelsior, Gentiana lutea, Paris quadrifolia, Phyteuma hemisphaericum, Quercus petraea, Ulmus glabra, Vaccinium myrtillus, etc.

Adenocarpus hispanicusAnother very important floristic element in the National Park flora is the endemic element, made up mainly of wallflower Iberian endemism, some of them exclusive to the Central System and a few limited to the Sierra de Guadarrama Mountains and adjacent mountains. Among these endemic species we can mention some very representative of the Sierra de Guadarrama, as the Adenocarpus hispanicus, Armoury caespitosa, Campanula herminii, carpetanus, Digitalis thapsi Crocus , carpetanum Doronicum, Festuca curvifolia, pentadactylis Linaria nivea, Saxifraga subsp. Vicentei willkommiana, Sempervivum, etc.

Throughout the whole National Park its Peripheral Protection Zone floristic catalog, approximately 446 taxa would form the flora of interest, belong to any of the following categories: endemic species, species in the area limit, rare and endangered species. Among these, about half would correspond to endemic species and the rest to finicola species. Only one fourth of these species of interest are protected in the flora legal protection catalogs (Spanish Catalog of Threatened Species, Madrid Regional Catalog of Endangered Species, Castilla y León Protected Flora).

List of protected species

SpeciesCommon nameComments
Amelanchier ovalis Snowy mespilus CREAM (vulnerable)
Androsace vitaliana subsp. assoana   LR (vulnerable)
Betula pendula Birch CREAM (special interest)
Betula pubescens subsp. celtiberica Birch CREAM (special interest)
Carex furva   CREAM (sensitive to habitat alteration)
Carex umbrosa subsp. huetiana   CREAM (sensitive to habitat alteration)
Corydalis intermedia   FPCL (focus)
Corylus avellana Hazel CREAM (special interest)
Eleocharis quinqueflora   CREAM (special interest)
Epilobium angustifolium   CREAM (vulnerable)
Eriophorum latifolium Broad-leaved cottongrass CREAM (sensitive to habitat alteration)
Erodium paularense Geranium from el Paular

The EAEC (vulnerable), LR (endangered),
CREAM (vulnerable)

Erysimum humile subsp. penyalarense   LR (endangered)
Fraxinus excelsior Downy birch CREAM (sensitive to habitat alteration)
Gentiana lutea Yellow gentian CREAM (special interest)
Geranium bohemicum   FPCL (focus)
Geum rivale   CREAM (vulnerable)
Ilex aquifolium Holly CREAM (sensitive to habitat alteration)
Isoetes velatum   CREAM (sensitive to habitat alteration)
Juncus alpinoarticulatus subsp. alpestris   CREAM (sensitive to habitat alteration)
Juncus bulbosus   CREAM (vulnerable)
Juniperus thurifera Albar juniperr CREAM (sensitive to habitat alteration)
Lilium martagon Martagon Lily CREAM (sensitive to habitat alteration)
Luzula caespitosa   CREAM (vulnerable)
Luzula sylvatica subsp. henriquesii   CREAM (vulnerable)
Lycopodiella inundata   LR (vulnerable), CREAM (in danger of extinction)
Malus sylvestris Wild apple tree CREAM (special interest)
Melittis melissophyllum Barstard balm CREAM (sensitive to habitat alteration)
Menyanthes trifoliata Water clover CREAM (vulnerable)
Narcissus pseudonarcissus subsp. confusus Spanish daffodil CREAM (in danger of extinction)
Neottia nidus-avis   CREAM (vulnerable)
Paris quadrifolia Herb paris CREAM (vulnerable)
Pedicularis schizocalyx   CREAM (vulnerable)
Phyteuma spicatum   CREAM (vulnerable)
Pinguicola grandiflora Large-flowered butterwort CREAM (vulnerable)
Polystichum lonchitis   CREAM (in danger of extinction)
Potamogeton polygonifolius   CREAM (vulnerable)
Prunus avium Wild cherry CREAM (special interest)
Prunus padus Bird cherry CREAM (vulnerable)
Pyrola minor   CREAM (vulnerable)
Quercus petraea Oak CREAM (special interest)
Ranunculus abnormis   CREAM (vulnerable)
Ranunculus valdesii   CREAM (vulnerable), FPCL (focus)
Rosa villosa   CREAM (special interest)
Sambucus nigra Elderberry CREAM (special interest)
Secale montanum   CREAM (vulnerable)
Senecio boissieri   CREAM (special interest)
Sorbus aria Whitebeam CREAM (special interest)
Sorbus aucuparia Rowan CREAM (special interest)
Sorbus latifolia Broad-leaved whitebeam CREAM (sensitive to habitat alteration)
Spiranthes aestivalis   FPCL (focus)
Stachys alpina   CREAM (vulnerable)
Taxus baccata   CREAM (sensitive to habitat alteration), FPCL (focus)
Ulmus glabra Wych elm CREAM (sensitive to habitat alteration)
Utricularia australis   CREAM (vulnerable)
Utricularia minor   LR (endangered), CREAM (sensitive to habitat alteration), FPCL (focus)
Vaccinium myrtillus Blueberry CREAM (special interest)
Veratrum album False hellebore CREAM (special interest)
Viburnum opulus Guelder rose CREAM (special interest)

The EAEC, Spanish Catalog of Threatened Species.
CREAM, Madrid Regional Catalog of Endangered Species.
FPCL, Castilla y León Protected Flora.
LR, Red List of Spanish Vascular Flora.

Más sobre naturaleza

Estado del tiempo

×There is no translation available.Boletín meteorológico de las últimas 48 horas y predicción para hoy y mañana.

La Pedriza: a particular granite batholith

La Pedriza is a particular mountain landscape, unique in the Iberian peninsula. Located in the Southern slope of the Sierra de Guadarrama, its topography is defined by a collection of amazingly shaped rocks and crags. It consists of a granite batholith, about 3.200 h wide, which formed in Paleozoic era, -in the carboniferous period- as result of the Hercynic orogeny (280 to 345 million years). La Pedriza can be considered as a sierra having its…

Sierra de Guadarrama Rivers

The Sierra de Guadarrama halves the waters of two different large river basins: The Tajo River one at the south and the Duero River one at the north. It is also the administrative borderline of the Madrid and Castilla León Autonomous Communities. The main Sierra de Guadarrama Rivers have their origin at the National Park and are documented on the Natural Systems of the National Parks Law 30/2014 as “Water Courses and Riparian forests”. There…

Reptiles

24 species of reptiles are inventoried in the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park and its Peripheral Protection Zone, giving an idea of the crucial role the Sierra de Guadarrama plays in this fauna group preservation. Various directories focussed on the Iberian herpetofauna conservation critical zones, show the significance the Peñalara Massif and the Upper Manzanares Basin have. To some extent, both enclaves are river headwaters zones and they have stayed long time under different regional…

The Sierra de Guadarrama Climate

The Sierra de Guadarrama, along with the Gredos and Ayllón Sierras, makes up the Sistema Central (the Central System). This chain of mountains runs basically in West-East direction and splits the meseta in two subplateaux having different continental mediterranean climates. The orography of the Central System has a direct influence on the Iberian Peninsula climate; the Northern area has a temperate climate, with dry and warm summers (Csb according to Köppen climate classification) and the…

Mammals

In the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park and in its Peripheral Protection Zone, there are 61 species of mammals. Six species are Iberian endemism (the Iberian hare, the Lusitanian pine vole, the Iberian shrew, the Iberian mole, the Pyrenean desman and the Cabrera’s vole). The Mediterranean mountains as the Sierra de Guadarrama are critical areas for the preservation of diversity and wealth regarding fauna in general and mammals in particular. The cooling and the intensification…

Fishes

There are inventoried 18 fish species in the National Park of the Sierra de Guadarrama and in its Peripheral Zone of Protection. Overall, the Sierra de Guadarrama has some biogeographic peculiarities regarding its ichthyofauna. For some species, such as the “Bermejuela” (Achondrostoma arcasii) or the “Lamprehuela” (Cobitis calderoni), the Sierra de Guadarrama constitutes their southern limit of distribution. On the other hand, for several other species, such as the Iberian barbel (Barbus comizo), it marks…

Peñalara Massif wetlands

At the Peñalara Massif there are several wetlands with a great interest and ecological value, which origin is linked to the glacial activity of the last glaciations period. Among all of them we should emphasize the Peñalara Lake (La Laguna Grande de Peñalara) due to its size and location at an extraordinary beautiful cirque. There are however other of less entity such as The Birds Lagoon (La Laguna de los Pájaros) and The Carnations Lagoon…

Peñalara: glaciology and glacial vestiges

The vestiges of Quaternary glacier and the current periglacial processes can be observed in Peñalara Massif. Much of the current geomorphology is explained by these processes, occurred thousands of years ago, but they have currently resulted in a great diversity of species and habitats and in a high landscape quality.

Invertebrates

The invertebrates are the group having a species highest number in the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park. Its high diversity and adaptability to the environment climatic conditions -low temperatures, high snowfall and rainfall, strong winds and high solar radiation - shorten its biological cycle. These extreme variables have led to fundamentally different adaptive strategies in insects, from singular shapes and reduced sizes to the most diverse range of colors, such as the ornamentation of coleopteran…

Fungi

Fungi play an essential role in the ecological functioning of forests. Most of them are saprophytic species that act by breaking down the plant and animal organic matter and enriching the soil and incorporating nutrients into the food chain. Others are symbionts and are associated with the roots of certain plants form mycorrhizae, allowing these vegetables to live in certain media, such as poor or waterlogged. Therefore, the conservation of fungi is essential for the…

Vegetation and Natural Systems

The National Park vegetation is made up of distinct plant communities from the Central System. An important part of them are Guadarrama endemism. The most representative are the Scots pine or Valsaín pine (Pinus sylvestris var. Iberian), the high mountain thickets of broom and creeping juniper, and the xerophyte pastures living on the summits of the Sierra. In the summits and slopes environment form complex mosaics where alternate wet grass, peat bogs, ponds and lakes,…

Sistema de observación meteorológica

×There is no translation available.El parque nacional cuenta con una red de estaciones meteorológicas de alta montaña.

Amphibians

The amphibian inventory of the National Park and its Peripheral Protection Zone is made up of 15 species, of which 5 are Iberian endemism. Several studies on the areas of interest for the conservation of amphibians in the Iberian peninsula, have pointed out the Sierra de Guadarrama importance, and particularly the Peñalara Massif, in a number of species preservation. This environment has a considerable diversity of species. Only in the Peñalara Massif wetlands, included in…

Flora

The Sierra de Guadarrama presents a high floristic diversity favored by multiple factors, related mainly with their geographical location. This position has allowed the existence of transitional characteristics between the Mediterranean and the Euro-Siberian regions. In that sense, the Sierra de Guadarrama has acted as a refuge for colder environments which had a wider distribution in the past and have disappeared from the neighboring territories. In addition, the defendant altitudinal gradient of the Sierra de…

Exceptional trees

In the National Park and its Influence Zone, there are 43 trees catalogued as exceptional, according to the Castilla León and Madrid Autonomous Communities environmental regulations. Among them 10 are located inner the National Park. In presence of one of those giants, we certainly cannot remain indifferent. Impressive stemflows, thick trunks and enormous twisted branches will invite us to contemplate and respect those nature jewels.

Birds

The Sierra de Guadarrama National Park and its Peripheral Protection Zone host 135 avian species having a regular presence sometime in the year, whether they are summer, wintering or standing species. The preservation actions on this fauna group have been noticeable particularly from the approval of the 79/409/EEC Directive on the conservation of wild birds and their habitats. Without this directive, the wide diversity of species living in the National Park and its Peripheral Protection…

Geology and Lithology

The Sierra de Guadarrama has a wide geological diversity, according to its soil composition and its origin. The range goes from 500 million years old rocks, as gneissic ones, to more recent sedimentary accumulations, as for example the limes, sands, and gravels the water courses system provides, or the Quaternary glaciers formations, that modelled the landscape on circuses, moraines and high mountain lakes. In addition, the granite batholith from La Pedriza, is very relevant, since it…

Lichens

The inside of the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park forests host abundant lichens, upholstering the bark of the trees and certain shady enclaves. But it is in the rocks that form the mountains summits where we can enjoy the exceptional lichens diversity, being the lichens the dominant living organisms in these rupicolous communities. Their yellowish, greenish, gray, orange, brown or blackish petals, give color to the rocks, depending of the snow annual duration or the…

Information cookies

Cookies are short reports that are sent and stored on the hard drive of the user's computer through your browser when it connects to a web. Cookies can be used to collect and store user data while connected to provide you the requested services and sometimes tend not to keep. Cookies can be themselves or others.

There are several types of cookies:

  • Technical cookies that facilitate user navigation and use of the various options or services offered by the web as identify the session, allow access to certain areas, facilitate orders, purchases, filling out forms, registration, security, facilitating functionalities (videos, social networks, etc..).
  • Customization cookies that allow users to access services according to their preferences (language, browser, configuration, etc..).
  • Analytical cookies which allow anonymous analysis of the behavior of web users and allow to measure user activity and develop navigation profiles in order to improve the websites.

So when you access our website, in compliance with Article 22 of Law 34/2002 of the Information Society Services, in the analytical cookies treatment, we have requested your consent to their use. All of this is to improve our services. We use Google Analytics to collect anonymous statistical information such as the number of visitors to our site. Cookies added by Google Analytics are governed by the privacy policies of Google Analytics. If you want you can disable cookies from Google Analytics.

However, please note that you can enable or disable cookies by following the instructions of your browser.