The Sierra de Guadarrama National Park and its Peripheral Protection Zone host 135 avian species having a regular presence sometime in the year, whether they are summer, wintering or standing species. The preservation actions on this fauna group have been noticeable particularly from the approval of the 79/409/EEC Directive on the conservation of wild birds and their habitats. Without this directive, the wide diversity of species living in the National Park and its Peripheral Protection Zone would not have been acknowledged.
The Directive and its implementation in Spain have resulted in the creation of a number of “Birds Special Protection Areas” (SPAs), which sole aim is to preserve the classified bird populations and their habitats. In the National Park and its Peripheral Protection Zone; this status protects a surface over 52.589 ha; 44.723 ha belong to the Sierra de Guadarrama SPA -ES0000010, in the province of Segovia, and 7.866 ha belong to the Alto Lozoya SPA -ES0000057, in the province of Madrid.