Collado Hermoso

Santa María de la Sierra Monastery Ruins

Ruinas del Monasterio Colado HermosoIt is the most significant heritage element of Collado Hermoso, having documented records of its existence since the early 12th century. It was occupied by the Benedictine Order at its origin, and in the early 13th century it became the property of the Cistercian Order. Nowadays, part of the church is preserved, with remarkable architectonical elements such as pointed arches and barrel vaults, and as well an awesome rose window at the main façade. The Santa María de la Sierra Monastery Ruins were declared Good of Cultural Interest in 1931 (Bien de Interés Cultural-BIC).

San Nicolás de Bari Church

It is a parish church with a Romanesque style origin, of which are preserved the baptistery access door and the baptismal font. Nowadays it lodges a small museum with several art works of several area churches, with the remarkable Virgen de las Angustias baroque altarpiece, the Romanesque Virgen de la Salud sculpture and the Parish Church processional cross dated in the middle of the 17th century.

El Boalo, Cerceda, Mataelpino

Archaeological Sites - El Boalo-Cerceda-Mataelpino

In El Boalo there are five documented archaeological sites. Three of them correspond to the actual villages, with historic references dated in the Middle Age. The other two are necropolis from the early Middle Age the historic references locate between El Boalo and Cerceda. One of them has been found at El Rebollar hill, and it is an ensemble of different sizes anthropomorphic gravesites carved on the rock and covered by several flagstones. The other one, a similar ensemble with 15 anthropomorphic gravesites is located at “El Alcorejo” private property.

Santa María la Blanca Parish Church - Cerceda

Built with granite rubblework, with buttresses and a cornice balls decorated, it is a good example of the Avila Gothic style from the early 16th century. The church has a rectangular ground plan and a polygonal head. The bell tower adjoined at the church has four bodies. The major altarpiece is polychrome wooden Herrerian Style.

San Sebastián Parish Church - El Boalo

It is from the 17th century, has a rectangular ground plan and was masonry built with granite ashlars reinforcing the corners. Adjoining the Church raises a good rubblework belfry tower with two bodies.

La Calera Cave

It is located in a zone with glandular gneisses presence at the east of Cerceda and south of the Samburiel stream, at a gravels, marls and limestone enclave.

El Espinar

San Eutropio Church

Iglesi El EspinarIt is located at the old town of El Espinar, showing a mélange of different architectonic styles due to the long construction period and the successive repairs and renovations made. Romanesque at its origin, it had been partially destroyed by a fire, being in the 16th century its transept and apse rebuilt in late-Gothic style by Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón, and the nave renovated by Juan de Mijares. In the 18th century the actual sacristy, the south façade and the minor altarpieces had been built. During the 20th century the church has suffered as well several restoring processes and the organ relocation from the transept left aisle to the foot of the nave. It presents a Latin- cross ground plan with niche chapels between buttresses. At the church inner there are as well remarkable elements such as the altarpiece made by Francisco de Giralte, disciple of the School of Berruguete, the canopy which covers it on The Holy Week made by Sánchez Coello, the 18th century Plateresque pulpit, the early 18th century Baroque organ made by Pedro Cavaría, several sculptures made by known authors like Giralte or Trapero, engravings such as the magnificent pine wooden Pieta made by Juan de Juni and other high cultural value pieces. It has been declared Good of Cultural Interest in 1994 (Bien de Interés cultural-BIC).

Santa Isabel Convent

In the town center next to San Eutropio Church are the ruins of the 16th and 17th centuries Santa Isabel Convent. It has several buildings, church, chambers, pilgrims and paupers lodging, mill and orchards. The Baroque church built at the end of the 16th century has just one nave covered with a barrel vault, and a major square ground plan chapel. Nowadays are still preserved several plasterworks remains at the 18th century dome, and as well the Counts of Alcolea sepulchre. It was declared Good of Cultural Interest in 1997 (Bien de Interés Cultural-BIC).

The Marquis of Perales Shearing Palace (Palacio del Esquileo del Marqués de Perales)

Palacio esquileo El EspinarIt is part of a large ensemble whose objective was the wool production, a relevant cattle, craft and preindustrial activity undertaken at El Espinar during the 17th and 18th centuries, being as well a main stop of the transhumant flocks in transit through the Soria Royal Drover’s Road. Its original construction is dated in the 17th century by the initiative of Doña Antonia Velasco, first Marchioness of Perales. Even if the building is in ruins, the perimeter walls and facades are still preserved, with two remarkable main entrances, embossed neoclassical main fronts crowned by the family coat of arms and the Cross of Calatrava. The Shearing Palace was declared Good of Cultural Interest in 1997 (Bien de Interés Cultural-BIC)..

Chapels

El Espinar has several chapels devoted to different Saints and Virgins especially relevant for the village people. Among them we should emphasize the Carmen Chapel close to the Mayor Stream at San Rafael, the Cristo del Caloco Chapel at the foot of the same name hill at Las Rinconadas area, the remains of the Church of Santa María de La Losa hamlet, Romanesque Church built on granite ashlars with the presbytery and apse still preserved, the San Isidro Chapel, La Soledad Chapel, and the survival arch of Santo Domingo Chapel.

Spanish Civil War Fortifications

There are many fortifications vestiges of the Spanish Civil War in El Espinar municipal area. As a good sample we should mention the existing ones close to the Alto del León, important battle field of the Guadarrama Battle (Batalla del Guadarrama).

Reservoirs

El Tejo or Las Tabladillas Reservoir and El Espinar or Vado de las Cabras reservoir are located on the Moros River valley and come from their waters damming. The first one is located slightly 400 m downriver the second one. Their difference is mainly the size, being larger El Tejo, and as well the type of dam they have, concrete built for El Vado de las Cabras and earth gravity dam for El Tejo. They supply water to El Espinar, San Rafael and El Espinar Station.

Fountains

Scattered all over El Espinar village, it is possible to find quite a number of fountains with different shapes and devoted to several illustrious personalities. Nowadays its visit through the “Water Paths” route allows an interesting and beautiful itinerary with the fountains and the water as the main subject.

The Railway Station

The railway, and concretely the Madrid-Segovia line, was a relevant historic and development driver of the zone, in the late 19th century and early 20th century. El Espinar Station was built in 1904, and nowadays hosts an interesting exhibition with old pieces of the railway profession.

“Los Gabarreros” Monument

It is a singular monument honoring the “Gabarreros “profession. They were professional dedicated to the wood logging and transport on horses for its personal use or sale. The Gabarreros Celebration already 16 years old, rememorizes the hard and sacrificed labor those people made. It has been declared a Tourist Regional Interest event.

Gallegos

San Juan Bautista Church

It is a modest Baroque church located at the village center, with just one nave and adjoining the three bodied bell tower.

The Torregil Building Ruins

It is an old medieval construction Romanesque style, used for the village defensive or religious purposes, or both according with several theories. Nowadays it is still possible to distinguish a tower with two bodies separated by a Scotia impost and abundant putlog holes on the walls, and as well a round arch at the entrance and at a window.

Guadarrama

La Torre Cultural Center- Guadarrama

It has been built where the San Miguel Arcángel Parish Church previously lay, on the highest spot of a hill and surrounded by a garden. The eldest preserved elements are the Mudejar apse and the medieval tower with Romanesque reminiscences. The multiple repairs suffered over the centuries have hidden its original style, deterring a construction date without error. The majority of what we can appreciate nowadays (walls, major chapel and tower) come from the 16th and 17th centuries, granted by the brick vault of the apsidal chapel and the pointed arch, the exterior masonry parameters and the balls decoration on the three bodies of the tower, rubblework built and situated at the church virtual axis.

San Miguel Arcángel Church - Guadarrama

It is situated at the foot of the hill crowned by the old parish church. It rises on the same place where the old Granary (Royal granaries) laid, and part of the old factory integrates the church nowadays. The old Granary was destroyed during the French invasion, only surviving the walls. With the remains a new church was built preserving the original masonry material. One of the principal elements of the church is an Imperial coat of arms of the Old House of La Cadena and two Madrid coat of arms of the same century.

Los Caños Fountain - Guadarrama

Fuente de Los CañosIt was built in the reign of Carlos III in 1785 according with its commemorative plate. It was a decorative element of the recently made Castilian Royal Path (Camino Real de Castilla). It was built on stone with rough and irregular middle size ashlars, crowned with a triangular gable with a round arched niche, containing the San Miguel Arcángel stony sculpture, and below it the heraldry of the Duke of El Infantado, lordship of the Guadarrama village. Two bas-relief lion heads whose mouths holds the respective iron pipes, pour water to two squared ground plan and stone made low drinking fountains.

El Rosario or Guadarrama Bridge - Guadarrama

That stone bridge saves the Guadarrama River on the “El Escorial Old Path”, which means the 18th century road made to connect El Escorial and the France road; being that way also connected through Guadarrama the Royal Sites of San Lorenzo and La Granja de San Ildefonso.

The bridge has five spans shaped as circular lowered and voussoired arches, and is completely made on granite ashlars, with an impost of the same material separating the parapet from the arcade. The parapet is formed by large granite slabs horizontally placed and sheltered at the edges with simple plinths.

Commemorative Monument to El León Pass crowning

In the 18th century the Borbon Kings Fernando VI and Carlos III undertook the task of modernizing the Spanish paths, not only with regard its condition but as well and especially through an ambitious plan contemplating a radial structure with the center at the Capital City. Before 1750, they managed to achieve some of the projected works; among them the new passageway of the Guadarrama Pass is one of the most remarkable, substituting the old La Tablada Pass by the new El Alto del León, 24 m higher than the previous. It is the tracing practically preserved until nowadays, being visible at the Guadarrama village exit the large cylindrical milestones, crowned with cones, placed at the road both edges to indicate the way when the path is covered by the snow.

About 1750, at the highest spot of the pass was risen a stone commemorative monument signaling the pass between both Castillas. It is built as a pedestal where pauses a lion resting its legs on two spheres symbolizing the Old and the New World. On the pedestal is written the following inscription “Ferdinandus VI Pater Patriae Viam utrique Castellae superatis montibus fecit an salutis MDCCXLIX Regni sui IV” (Fernando VI Father of the Nation, made the path for both Castillas over the mountains, in the year of our Lord 1749, fourth year of his reign). Due to the Spanish Civil War, the emblematic monolith was marked with abundant shrapnel traces. In the 40’s, the Alto del León Pass or Guadarrama Pass became the Alto de los Leones.

El Arcipreste de Hita Monument

The Arcipreste de Hita Rock (Peña del Arcipreste de Hita) was declared Natural Monument of National Interest in 1930, proposed by The Spanish Language Royal Academy (Real Academia de la Lengua Española) to commemorate the sixth centenary of the appearance of “The Book of Good Love” (El Libro del Buen Amor). The Arcipreste de Hita Monument was inaugurated on the pass road, very close to the top, made with a natural rocks aggregation to recall his trips through this Sierra. The place known as “The Arcipreste Rock” (La Peña del Arcipreste) is completed with the Aldara Fountain, in memory of the “Serrana” he met, and a casket with a copy of the famous book.

La Losa

Parish Church

Iglesia La LosaBuilt in the late 15th century and the early16th century the San Juan Evangelista Parish Church is Decorated Gothic and is located at the village northwest side. It is stone ashlars and masonry built, with just one nave separated in two sections by transverse arches. The two bodied tower with a rectangular ground plan is connected to the head by the Gospel aisle (the left aisle). The inner has a remarkable 18th century Baroque major altarpiece, and as well other minor altarpieces, a Gothic polygonal pulpit, a Crucified Christ of the same style and several precious metal works safeguarded at the sacristy. This Church was declared Good of Cultural Interest in 1995 (Bien de Interés Cultural-BIC).

San Pedro de la Losa Chapel

About 1 km from La Losa is located the San Pedro Chapel, a good example of the late Castilian Romanesque style. Its construction is dated at the mid13th century. Nowadays it is deconsecrated and was sold by the religious authorities. It is used as a haystack and as a pilgrimage place for the village people on holydays.

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