To Top

The man and the Sierra de Guadarrama

At the Roman Empire epoch, Segovia and Toledo were connected by a roadway crossing La Fuenfría Pass. In this area its tracing coincides with “the old road to Segovia”, climbing the pass at the Madrid side skirting along the slope. The pavement crossing the Enmedio Bridge (Puente de Enmedio) was built in the 18th century and corresponds to a cattle track named “Cañada de La Fuenfría”. Within the National Park several cattle tracks are catalogued. The royal drover’s roads (Cañadas Reales) were used by the transhumant herds to move according to the season, looking for mountain fresh meadows, or pastures at the tempered valleys.

It reached its peak in the reign of the Catholic Monarchs (Los Reyes Católicos), when millions of Merino sheep, with excellent wool to trade, transited under the protection of The Honored La Mesta Council (1273-1836) (El Honrado Concejo de la Mesta). Nowadays the cow cattle predominate for its meat production. The majority of the sucker cows are thorough-bred Avileña Negra-Ibérica and in certain cases cross-bred with Charolais and Limousine, handling a higher meat production capacity.

The Sierra de Guadarrama pinewoods forest logging has been one of the most important traditional uses. However, the majority of the National Park forest extensions have had assigned for many years the role of biodiversity and landscape preservation, land protection, hydrologic control and recreation, continuing with the forest logging at the Peripheral Protection Zone. The Valsaín Pinewood (Pinar de Valsaín) should be mentioned as an emblematic example of sustainable use and nature preservation. Since The National Park Pronouncement, it holds a special protection regulation, in practice equivalent to the National Park one, for its area belonging to the Peripheral Protection Zone.

More about culture

Filter by Category

The Sierra de Guadarrama and literature

The presence of the Sierra de Guadarrama in our literary heritage is almost as old as literature itself.

The man and the Sierra de Guadarrama

The Sierra de Guadarrama has always been marked by the relationship between man and nature.


Some museums to visit in the Sierra de Guadarrama.

Great Core Heritages

Castles, palaces and monasteries are an added attraction to a visit to the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park.

Sites of Cultural Interest

The mountain villages and their surroundings are home to a large number of cultural heritage elements of enormous value.

logo cm



logo JCyL

Creative Commons Parque Nacional de la Sierra de Guadarrama Creative Commons | GDPR | Cookies | Mapa Web | Intranet

Information cookies

Cookies are short reports that are sent and stored on the hard drive of the user's computer through your browser when it connects to a web. Cookies can be used to collect and store user data while connected to provide you the requested services and sometimes tend not to keep. Cookies can be themselves or others.

There are several types of cookies:

  • Technical cookies that facilitate user navigation and use of the various options or services offered by the web as identify the session, allow access to certain areas, facilitate orders, purchases, filling out forms, registration, security, facilitating functionalities (videos, social networks, etc..).
  • Customization cookies that allow users to access services according to their preferences (language, browser, configuration, etc..).
  • Analytical cookies which allow anonymous analysis of the behavior of web users and allow to measure user activity and develop navigation profiles in order to improve the websites.

So when you access our website, in compliance with Article 22 of Law 34/2002 of the Information Society Services, in the analytical cookies treatment, we have requested your consent to their use. All of this is to improve our services. We use Google Analytics to collect anonymous statistical information such as the number of visitors to our site. Cookies added by Google Analytics are governed by the privacy policies of Google Analytics. If you want you can disable cookies from Google Analytics.

However, please note that you can enable or disable cookies by following the instructions of your browser.